What is Fibroid?
Fibroids, or leiomyoma, are benign tumors that grow in the uterus or uterus, and commonly affect the female reproductive tract, especially in the reproductive age group. Female ovarian hormones; Estrogens, progesterone along with various locally produced growth factors play an essential role in the development and growth of fibroids.
The types of fibroid fibroids can be classified and described into the following types as shown in the following diagram:
(a) Sub-serous fibroids – outside the uterine cavity
(b) Intramural fibroids: in the body of the uterus
(c) Submucosal fibroids: push the lining of the uterus (the endometrium)
(d) Pedunculated fibroids: hanging from the uterus on a “stem”
Fibroid Symptoms An individual can be symptomatic or asymptomatic, depending largely on the amount, size, and location of the fibroid.
The most common symptoms include:
• Pain during sexual intercourse.
• Anemia resulting from prolonged or heavy bleeding.
• heavy or painful periods
• Long periods
• Bleeding between periods (spotting)
• Frequent urination
• Difficulty emptying the bladder.
• Low back pain
• Feeling “full” or light pressure on the pelvis
• Reproductive problems, such as miscarriage, premature delivery, and infertility.
• Constipation and bloating.
The diagnosis of fibroid fibroids can be detected during a pelvic exam. Once fibroids are suspected, a systematic diagnostic approach is initiated. This consists of a clinical examination, a transvaginal ultrasound, and sometimes an MRI of the pelvis. These tests provide complete information about uterine fibroids.
The next step is to evaluate the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes with a saline sonohysterogram (SSHG) or hysterosalpingogram (HSG).
Fibroma and infertility
Fibroids have been reported to affect approximately 35-77% of women of reproductive age, and that most women will have fibroids during their lifetime. This has required a better understanding of the potential relationship between fibroids and infertility. In many women, fibroids will not affect their tendencies to have children, since they can remain small or grow in places that do not affect the reproductive system. However, certain fibroids have a profound effect on the ability to conceive, stay pregnant, and carry a baby to term. Based on where they grow, fibroids can prevent sperm and egg from coming together for conception. They can impede the ability of an embryo to implant, as they often grow in places or sizes that make it difficult to continue the pregnancy. They can also affect the well-being and health of the fetus.
Effects of fibroids on fertility success Effects of fibroids on pregnancy During pregnancy, most women will experience little or no effect of fibroids. However, 10% to 30% of women whose fibroids are larger than 5 centimeters tend to develop complications, such as pain during the second and third trimesters. Fibroids can also increase your risk of other complications during pregnancy and childbirth, such as:
- Placental obstruction
- restriction of fetal growth
- Buttocks position
- Premature delivery
- Cesarean delivery
- Spontaneous abortion
Effects of pregnancy on fibroids: During pregnancy, fibroids may increase in size due to increased estrogen levels or may decrease in size.
Effects of fibroids on fertility: Whether fibroids affect your fertility depends on the size of the uterus and where the fibroid is located. Many women who have fibroids can conceive naturally, even without treatment. This is true, especially in cases where fibroids remain small or occur in areas that do not disturb the lining of the uterus. The effect on your fertility is much less. However, in some scenarios, fibroids can affect your fertility. If the fibroid is located inside your uterus (submucosal fibroid) distorting or obstructing the uterine cavity or blocking the fallopian tubes, it is very likely that it affects your fertility by interfering with the implant and most specialists would recommend its removal.
Fibroid Treatment – Before Pregnancy Treatment of fibroids before pregnancy can improve your fertility risk.
The following fibroid treatments improve fertility:
or hormonal birth control pills
o Myolysis o Intrauterine device (IUD)
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists