Female Infertility and IVF
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The IVF procedure is one of the renowned treatments for female infertility. As we know, infertility has become a serious problem today, which greatly affects young generations. Due to this, around 27.5 million couples in India cannot conceive. Of the total infertile population, 30% explain female infertility, 30% due to male infertility, 20% in both cases, and the remaining 20% are not identified. A new life is said to begin from the moment a woman conceives of pregnancy. Your inability to conceive constitutes infertility. But proper female infertility treatment after proper diagnosis can help a woman conceive a pregnancy and have a baby.

What is infertility in women?

Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that prevents the conception of pregnancy. It is the inability of a couple to conceive, after a year of regular unprotected sex. It affects large numbers of people today.

Infertility in women is the inability of a woman to conceive pregnancy due to some factors such as ovulation disorders, endometriosis, blocked tubes, etc.

What are the symptoms of female infertility?

One of the prominent symptoms of female infertility is her inability to conceive. Apart from this, the only symptom is an irregular menstrual cycle, which is too long (> 35 days) or too short (<21 days), or no menstrual cycle. These symptoms may be an indication of female infertility.

What are the causes of female infertility?

There are several reasons why a woman has trouble conceiving. Some common causes of female infertility are:

Ovulation Disorders: One of the main causes of female infertility is the problem of ovulation. Approximately 15% of infertile women struggle with ovulation disorders. This condition prevents the release of eggs, making it impossible for couples to conceive.
Endocrine Disorders: Our endocrine system consists of several glands that make hormones. These hormones affect the growth and general development of our bodies. The endocrine disorder is the result of the malfunction of these hormones that leads to infertility.
Tubal blockage: It is one of the possible causes of female infertility. The fallopian tubes play an important role in conception because they are where most eggs are fertilized. Blocked fallopian tubes or abnormalities in it prevent fertilization and therefore affect a woman’s ability to conceive.
Endometriosis: About a third of women with endometriosis fight infertility. It is a condition in which the endometrial lining grows outside the uterus, causing damage to the pelvic organs, and therefore affecting a woman’s ability to conceive.
Age: Speaking of female fertility age, women are more fertile in their 20s, and after 35 their fertility begins to decline, both in terms of quality and quantity.
Stress: According to a recent study, a woman with high levels of stress faces difficulties conceiving. It also leads to an imbalance in the hormone, which prevents the normal ovulatory cycle.
Hormonal imbalances: Irregularities in thyroid hormone or PCOS, due to hormonal imbalances, are among the main causes of infertility in women. These imbalances decrease the regularity of ovulation and prevent a woman from conceiving.
Lifestyle factors: Several lifestyle factors affect fertility in women. Being overweight or underweight is a consequence of an unhealthy lifestyle, which affects a woman’s menstruation cycle and causes infertility.
Some disorders: There are a number of diseases that reduce a woman’s fertility. Some of these disorders are uterine fibroids, polyps, autoimmune disorders, pelvic inflammatory diseases, or some infections like tubal infections, etc.
Cervical factor: Various uterine or cervical causes impact female fertility by interfering with implantation or increasing the likelihood of miscarriage. Sometimes the cervix cannot produce the mucus required by sperm to enter the uterus, which in turn prevents the conception of pregnancy.

How is female infertility diagnosed?

Assessment of infertile women involves a careful medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Thorough and systematic research is of utmost importance to establish a diagnosis and generate a treatment plan. Some of the fertility tests to diagnose infertility in women include:

Ovulation tests: it is a test that detects the presence and concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine to document if you are ovulating or not. The inability to ovulate could be a sign of infertility.
Ultrasound: it is an important step to diagnose female infertility by demonstrating follicular structure, pelvic organs, cyclical changes of the endometrium, etc.
Hysterosalpingography (HSG): Used to access the internal architecture of the uterus to detect abnormalities in the uterine cavity. In some women, the test itself can sometimes improve fertility by rinsing and opening the fallopian tubes.

Female infertility treatment
Once a woman is diagnosed with infertility, she can be easily treated with any of the following methods, depending on the severity of her case:

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): It is a process in which fertilization takes place outside the body. In summary, IVF involves the fertilization of eggs and sperm, embryonic development, embryo transfer, and aids in their implantation. With the advancement of technology, IVF success rates have increased significantly. Female infertility and IVF are also known to be a perfect match for the successful conception of pregnancy.
Laparoscopy: is a surgical procedure that diagnoses and treats infertility in women. Laparoscopy is also used to treat endometriosis and remove scar tissue in the pelvis.
IVF with donor eggs: In cases where women are inefficient at producing on their own, the eggs are borrowed from a donor and then, after fertilization of the sperm and egg, the embryo implants inside the uterus.
IUI with controlled ovarian stimulation: IUI, also known as intrauterine insemination, is a fertility treatment procedure in which sperm is injected directly into the uterus to reduce sperm travel time and aid in fertilization. In certain cases of female infertility, IUI with controlled ovarian stimulation may increase the chances of pregnancy.
Despite various assisted reproductive technologies and treatments, the success of any female infertility treatment depends on a few factors such as the reasons behind infertility, age, the type of technology used during treatment, etc.

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